A Native-American community foundation and small Native-American food company are teaming up on a project to get Indian ranchers involved in raising more buffalo. The market-based approach could help restore the land, the economy and the health of American Indian communities, they say.
Photo by Nicolás Boullosa A buffalo on a ranch near Bozeman, Montana.
For centuries, buffalo played a central role in the lives of Great Plains Indians. It was their biggest natural resource, providing food, shelter, clothing and spiritual enrichment.
Then – for reasons that have been well documented – buffalo disappeared from the Great Plains.
Many Native Americans yearn to re-integrate the buffalo into their lives. They say it could be a boon for health and nutrition in their communities and could be economically empowering for Native American ranchers. They note that bison have lower fat content and higher protein. They say a consistent diet that includes bison could be a potent weapon against ailments like diabetes and obesity that persist in their communities.
So the Indian Land Tenure Foundation and Native American Natural Foods, a small company based on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, have teamed up to launch a campaign to reintroduce large numbers of buffalo into several Great Plains states – including North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and pockets of Minnesota.
Between 1,000 and 2,000 buffalo would initially be introduced to graze, roam and live just like they did for thousands of years. Much of the money raised would be used to acquire land. The groups want to raise funds to assist producers in the purchase of 1 million acres in the Great Plains states – a task organizers expect will take years and plenty of capital.
Cris Stainbrook, who heads the Indian Land Tenure Foundation, based in Little Canada, Minnesota, says re-introducing buffalo in large numbers to the Great Plains would also be great for the environment. He says it could help restore the prairie and aid in the sequestration of carbon. Prairie grass typically grow roots to 15-18 feet deep with 80 percent of the plant’s carbon below the surface of the soil, making the storage of lots of carbon underground possible. Stainbrook says this could lead to enormous commercial possibilities in the carbon trade, which presently revolves largely around timber.
Has Blackwater been deployed to Ukraine? Notorious U.S. mercenaries 'seen on the streets of flashpoint city'
Has Blackwater been deployed to Ukraine? Notorious U.S. mercenaries 'seen on the streets of flashpoint city' --Russia claims 300 hired guns have arrived in country 09 Mar 2014 Speculation was growing last night that American mercenaries [terrorists] had been deployed to Donetsk after videos emerged of unidentified armed men in the streets of the eastern Ukrainian city. At least two videos published on YouTube earlier this week show burly, heavily armed soldiers with no insignia in the city, which has been gripped by pro-Moscow protests. In one of the videos onlookers can be heard shouting 'Blackwater! Blackwater!' as the armed men, who wear no insignia, jog through the streets. Donetsk was this week the scene of civil unrest as pro-Russian elements among its citizens seized control of the regional administration headquarters and another government building.
NOISE DEMO TO SUPPORT PRISONERS ON STRIKE
Tuesday March 11th @ 8 PM
1623 E J Street, Tacoma, WA
On Friday March 7th, detainees at the Northwest Detention Center in Tacoma, Washington began a hunger strike to demand better conditions and an end to deportations. ICE has confirmed that 750 of the 1,300 people who are detained at the Northwest Detention Center are on hunger strike. However, there have been reports that as many as 1,200 detainees are on strike. There have been reports that those participating in the hunger strike are having their blankets, pillows and cloths taken away.
The Northwest Detention Center is a private immigration prison facility located on the tide flats of Tacoma, Washington. The detention center opened in 2004 under a contract with The US Department of Homeland Security. Though owners have changed over time, the facility is now
owned by the GEO Group which operates prison facilities in Australia, The UK, South Africa, the US and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
Information on the strike is still emerging but more information can be found here:
On Tuesday, March 11th at 8pm a noise demo will be held to express solidarity with striking prisoners inside the Northwest Detention Center.Event date: Tuesday, March 11, 2014 - 21
Stolen passports booked onto second flight 10 Mar 2014 Thai police said Sunday they were investigating a "passport ring" as details emerged of bookings made in Thailand with stolen European passports for the vanished Malaysia Airlines flight. Two European names -- Christian Kozel, an Austrian, and Luigi Maraldi of Italy [who had their passports stolen] -- were listed on the passenger manifest of the flight MH370, but neither man boarded the plane, officials said. Flight information seen by AFP shows that tickets were booked in Maraldi and Kozel's names on March 6, 2014, and issued in the Thai city of Pattaya, a popular beach resort south of the capital Bangkok. The e-ticket numbers for their flights are consecutive and both were paid for in Thai baht.
US deploys fighter jets, 300 soldiers to Poland --Four F-15 planes also sent to Lithuania 09 Mar 2014 The United States is sending a dozen F-16 fighter jets to Poland as a part of a training exercise, amid continuing [US-generated] tensions between Ukraine and Russia, the Polish defence ministry said on Sunday. Three hundred US service personnel will also be sent to Poland as part of the exercise. The deployment in Poland comes after Washington announced it was also sending four F-15 planes to Lithuania to strengthen surveillance in the airspace around the Baltic.
The Aboriginal Pledge of Allegiance
I pledge allegiance to the flag
and to Amnesia for which it stands,
one post-race nation under Enbridge,
with Prosperity and Reconciliation for all.
Unforgiving and Inconsolable: New Collection of Writings on Durham's Recent Struggle Against the Police
We’re happy to announce that a new zine, Unforgiving and Inconsolable: Durham Against the Police, is now available for download and printing. The zine compiles writings released in the heat of battle over the last few months, as three separate marches protesting the police detention and murder of Chuy Huerta brought the town’s distrust and anger with its police to the fore. New relationships were made while new ground was broken, which will hopefully continue as people continue to assemble and reflect upon the past few months. The following is from the zine’s introduction:
I was at work when I got the text from a friend. It was the fourth time this fall and I was in the same place I had been for the other three, trying to process the information while keeping up appearances on the job. I didn’t know Chuy; all I knew was that the cops had killed another kid and they were going to get away with it again, but that this time it wasn’t going to be as easy.
S. told me that she knew Chuy from the skate park. I had started hanging out there this fall when I decided to start skating again.“You’re not getting any younger,”she reminds me everytime I fall. I don’t really know why I decided to pick it up again knowing that I’ll never have the same delusions of invincibility I had as a teenager. Sometimes I think it’s because it’s the only bearable way to be outside in a sprawl, but when I’m at the park I realize it’s mostly because of the kids. Sometimes when the park is too crowded I just watch them fall and get back up until they can’t see straight. I hear the same fed up conversations my friends had ten years ago: school is worthless, mom is too strict, dad wants you to get a job, the pigs are always on your back, no one wants to date you cause you skate all day, everything sucks.
They don’t give a fuck about us unless they’re scared of us, and that’s when they shoot. (1)
Chuy’s friends may be fearless teenagers, but they know they’re not invincible. “Don’t shoot me”stories circulate around the park; being followed home by the cops alone at night, or running to get away from teargas. Often there is an eruption of laughter by the storytellers at the end, the kind of laughter that signifies the pride of getting away but comes out like giggles at a funeral when the pain is too heavy to bear without an opening. Laughter becomes an oxygen tank—it’s a life-line and an explosive device. Mothers and friends echo one another: when a black or brown family member or friend never shows up at night to crash, we’re not imagining them held up at gunpoint by a stranger, we imagine them lying in front of a cop car bleeding out before ambulances arrive.
The police articulate the way they value young lives: “We don’t have time for this” declares the officer in between tasing and shooting 18 year old Keith Vidal in his home in Eastern North Carolina this winter, while his parents watched helplessly. The families ask, “Why?” They want answers—something to hold onto to make sense of the impossible reality facing them. A mourning family reminds us that a life is invaluable, and irreplaceable, while the police calculate the value of a life through the logic of society ruled by capital: assimilate or die, function or starve, work or go to prison.
The police are wedged in the tension between precarity and legitimacy. They exist to police surplus populations but they also produce those populations through the legitimacy of their violence. They choose whose lives are literally disposable.
A window is made of sand and can be replicated exactly. A rectangle window, of the dimensions I am being charged with breaking, doesn’t need to be replicated because the manufacturer keeps spare windows around for replacement. The United States justice system considers this a serious crime warranting felony charges. Trayvon Martin was a human being. There will only ever be one of him and we have lost him and the joy he brought to this world forever. A human life is priceless because it can never be replaced. (2)
Why do you keep asking about rocks and windows? Windows can be fixed. Can they fix my brother? (3)
Those who want to dwell on the “violent turn” of the character of the marches have fulfilled the desires of the police. They turn our attention away from the reality that is glaring at us all: there can be no justice because our lives are not scales to balance. Chuy will not be brought back to life by holding the police accountable, nor will he by the destruction of police property. But if we accept reconciliation, we accept the lie that Chuy’s life was expendable. When we destroy their property, we remind them that we will never forget. Justice is not what is at stake.
The only writer of history with the gift of setting alight the sparks of hope in the past, is the one who is convinced of this: that not even the dead will be safe from the enemy, if he is victorious. And this enemy has not ceased to be victorious. (4)
The marches this winter reminded us that our rage expressed in these moments is not lost to futility. We refused justice and reconciliation and demands and in that refusal we witnessed diffuse acts of rage carry the spirits of those murdered and locked up into the present. We fought back when attacked, we cheered while the names of our friends were sprayed onto the walls of the city, we were strengthened by solidarity actions across the country, and we forged trust and friendships in the streets.
This zine is a quickly compiled collection of writings released in the midst of these events. These pieces were written with different voices by participants who had overlapping but different understandings of what was going on, with little time and space for deeper reflection. Perhaps this collection can help to counter the dizzying array of media, liberals, and leftists who have, by ignoring the voices of actual participants, either condemned or downplayed the combative aspects of this struggle. Above all, it is our hope that by putting all these writings in one place this text might facillitate a deeper debate and anaylsis about how we can seize the moments of tension and rupture in which we increasingly find ourselves. We look forward with anticipation to reading and hearing the thoughts of new and old comrades alike with regards to the last few months of struggle that we have shared together.
While the street marches have died down for now, the air of a combative Durham remains, and grows. The conversations, assemblies, groups, bonfires, dance parties, skate competitions, and personal networks that gave rise to this phenomenon continue. The next time the police kill, or some new crisis of authority, white supremacy, wealth, or political power comes to the fore, we will be more ready than ever.
(1) A Friend of Chuy
(2) From the statement of Hannibul Shakur while in jail held on felony vandalism, after the riots in Oakland post-Zimmerman verdict
(3) Evelin Huerta in a press release after the December 19th march
(4) Walter Benjamin, Theses on the Philosophy of History, writing before he took his own life when he was unable to escape fascists in EuropeTags: North Carolinachuy huertareport backZineCategory: Actions
'Blackwater' footage: Who are the mercenaries in Ukraine? 09 Mar 2014 Videos have emerged on YouTube alleging that the US private security service formerly known as Blackwater [currently called Academi] is operating in the eastern Ukrainian city of Donetsk. Western press is hitting back, accusing Russia of fabricating reports to justify "aggression." The authenticity of videos allegedly made in downtown Donetsk on March 5 is hard to verify. In the footage, unidentified armed men in military outfits equipped with Russian AK assault rifles and American М4А1 carbines are securing the protection of some pro-Kiev activists amidst anti-government popular protests.
My First Race (50k Trail Ultra), a photo by mikey and wendy on Flickr. I ran my first race this weekend. It was a 31 mile (50km) trail ultra in Las Cruces, NM. I came in 7th place out of 33. My total time was just over 5 hours and 30 minutes. Wendy and Sesame came out to crew for me which we now realize is far more exhausting than running all morning. While I had a enjoyable run with no issues the one thing that was reinforced for me is "race like your train". My clothes, food, gear, etc all matched what I am accustom to using on each training run. The familiarity of the equipment made everything go super smooth.
From New Yorker - by Sally McGrane
“Friends, with me everything is okay,” read the message posted on Facebook by Serhiy Zhadan, Ukraine’s most famous counterculture writer. A few hours earlier, photos of his face, covered in blood, had circulated on the Internet, and friends and fans were worried. He described his injuries: “Cuts on the head, eyebrow dissected, concussion, broken nose suspected.”
On Saturday, pro-Russian demonstrators stormed the regional state administration building in Kharkiv, Ukraine’s second-largest city, which is in the northeastern part of the country, not far from the Russian border. In the city’s central square, protests against the regime of President Viktor Yanukovych, who was closely aligned with Russia, had been taking place every day for three months. After protests in Kiev in late February became increasingly violent, with government forces shooting into crowds, Yanukovych fled the country; soon after, Kharkiv’s pro-Russian mayor and regional governor disappeared. Last weekend, locals who are against the country’s turn away from Russia came out in force to counterprotest. They were joined by agitators who many observers suspect were bussed in from Russia. (As in Crimea and other parts of Ukraine, pro-Russian forces are not always who they say they are.) Armed with bats, the pro-Russian demonstrators attacked the mostly college-age activists who had occupied the building on Freedom Square.
One of the occupiers was Zhadan, who lives in Kharkiv and has thrown his energy behind the city’s protests. As the attackers were hitting him, the writer said, they told him to kneel and kiss the Russian flag. “I told them to go fuck themselves,” Zhadan wrote, on his Facebook page.
The pro-Russian toughs probably didn’t recognize Zhadan, who was hospitalized later that day. But Zhadan, who turns forty this year and has a boyish look, with floppy hair and large, thoughtful eyes, has long been an admired and influential figure in Ukraine. “Americans need to understand, in Eastern Europe, writers still have a huge influence on society,” Vitaly Chernetsky, a professor of Slavic literature at the University of Kansas, said of Zhadan’s role in current events. “It may sound like an old-fashioned ‘poet stands up to tyranny’ story, like something out of ‘Les Miz’—‘Can you hear the people sing?’—but it’s really kind of like that.” Zhadan’s raucous poetry and poetic novels depict post-Soviet working-class lives in his country’s rust belts; in his imagination, Ukraine’s vast, rolling, sparsely peopled steppes and historically shifting western border are part of the country’s vital essence rather than a point of weakness. He also fronts a popular ska band, Dogs in Space. “He’s a writer who is a rock star, like Byron in the early nineteenth century was a rock star,” said Chernetsky.
Born to a working-class family (his father drove a truck) in a small town in eastern Ukraine, Zhadan writes in Ukrainian, which he says is a political act in itself. In the Soviet era, Russian was considered the language of literature and philosophy, while Ukrainian was thought of as a second-rate peasant language. Despite the healthy contemporary Ukrainian-language literature scene, this bias lingers. His poems are wild and funny, while reflecting the pain of the economic collapse that devastated the country in the nineteen-nineties, following Ukraine’s independence from the Soviet Union. One poem, “Leavetaking of the Slavs,” is about two endearing hoodlums’ grand plan to steal cell phones (“Life lets you pull it apart like an accordion; I’ll pull in this direction; you pull in the other,” one says to the other); another poem, “Donbass Mushrooms,” describes the regrets of a macho pump-factory worker (“We were the élite of the proletariat”) about his post-Communist career growing hallucinogenic mushrooms. “He sees himself as a voice of the underprivileged,” said Chernetsky.
Zhadan counts a wide range of upstarts, from the American Beats to Rimbaud, as his influences. In the nineteenth century, the Ukrainian national poet Taras Shevchenko pioneered what would become a tradition of politically minded poet/prophets, a tradition in which Zhadan follows. During the Orange Revolution of 2004, he organized a tent city in Kharkiv where protestors lived for about two months. Zhadan, who considers himself a peaceful anarchist, is proud of Ukraine’s anarchist tradition, which stretches from the Ukrainian Cossacks of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to Makhnovia, a semi-official anarchist republic that existed from 1918 to 1921 in a region just north of Crimea. (One of Zhadan’s travelogues, “Anarchy in the UKR,” documents a trip from Kharkiv to Makhnovia.)
Zhadan first became well-known as a poet. But after spending a year in Vienna, he began writing novels. His first, “Depeche Mode,” published in 2004, has been described as “ ‘Trainspotting,’ but set in early-nineties Ukraine.” “I was satisfied with the country in which I lived, the amount of shit that filled it,” explains the book’s narrator, recalling his early teen-age years under Communism. “I understood that I could very well have been born in another far worse country, with, for example, a harsher climate or an authoritarian form of government ruled not simply by bastards, like in my country, but by demented bastards. … For the most part I was satisfied with everything.”
“You must understand, in eastern Ukraine, people are still in shock,” Zhadan explained recently, on a German news program, talking about why residents of the area are protesting. “In the nineties, the industrial and the agricultural economies collapsed entirely. Now that there’s some degree of stability, people are afraid of losing what little they have. That’s why they’re willing to put up with corruption.”
Zhadan has found a robust audience outside Ukraine. His work is popular in Germany. (“Maybe there’s not enough drinking in contemporary German-language novels,” reads one German book review. “How else can you explain that, in our books, so seldom do you find such vitality, such insanity, and such poetry?”) Perhaps more surprisingly, he is also popular, in translation, in Russia. “A lot of Russian critics brush over the Ukrainian specificity of his work,” said Chernetsky. “They consider him a post-Soviet writer.” (In an e-mail, the Russian novelist Lyudmila Ulitskaya said that Zhadan’s beating has caused a great deal of protest among Russians, and referred me to a statement released by the Russian PEN Center, which reads, in part, “We are observing a severe noetic crisis, akin to what was described by Orwell: the meanings of the words ‘peace,’ ‘war,’ ‘fascism,’ and ’democracy,’ ‘defense,’ and ‘invasion’ are shamelessly warped.”)
In Zhadan’s most recent novel, “The Invention of Jazz in Donbass,” Chernetsky sees a work of magical realism that has much in common with other post-colonial writings from around the world. In the book, a yuppie type living in a large Ukrainian city is called back to his small eastern-Ukrainian hometown to take over his brother’s gas station. His brother has disappeared—he may have emigrated to the Netherlands, but no one knows for sure. Running the gas station (where fending off corrupt oligarchs is part of the job), he finds that, to his surprise, he is proud of the place he is from—that it is unique, possessed of its own dignity and beauty, no matter how depressed it may be. (Depressed it is: at one point, the narrator is invited to play with his old soccer team in a match against a nearby factory. Only after the game ends does he realize that his entire team was composed of ghosts—friends who had died as the result of crimes, accidents, or alcoholism.)
Now, Zhadan is back in the hospital—his jaw has not been healing properly. But, he wrote in an e-mail, the beating has not deterred him. “It’s very simple,” he wrote. “I don’t want to live in a country of corruption and injustice. I, like millions of other Ukrainians, would like to have a normal measure of power. A dictatorship is not normal, and people who don’t protest injustice, they have no future.”
Sally McGrane is a journalist based in Berlin.
Photograph by Maciek Król.Tags: UkrainepoetryCategory: International
One thing is for sure, this sign must never give the impression that business takes place here. Folks walk in our gate all the time thinking that we are part a Truth or Consequences bath house. But this is not the only reason that we must have a commerce free image. I want to be a reminder that job free living is an option, even if this option is currently limited to folks who start out with a nest egg or inherit a property. Though my heart is in the commons, today's model of private property means that only some with own it. But the no biz message still has merit. It reminds that it is illegal to live an indigenous life. There is no opt out to capitalism. And when corporations are using human talent to no good end, it is an act of protest to take back skill and creativity and use it to create a life of our own imagining. I want to know what it is to be natural to be a creature. The artificial lifestyle of todays model of employment does not allow for this.
This week I finally sketched out an image for the sign. I think it embodies these ideas. I primed the surface with my buddy Jia. Next comes the paint. Stay tuned. . .
Alberta’s tar sands crude has a new route east.
Canada’s National Energy Board announced on Thursday the approval of Enbridge’s request to reverse and expand a portion of the company’s Line 9 pipeline to allow for crude to flow east to Montreal, Quebec. This follows a July 2012 decision by the NEB to allow reversal of the western Line 9 segment from West Northover to Sarnia, Ontario. As a result, in the words of the NEB, “Enbridge will be permitted to operate all of Line 9 in an eastward direction in order to transport crude oil from western Canada and the U.S. Bakken region to refineries in Ontario and Quebec.”
Image: National Energy Board
Canadian activists urged the NEB to fully consider the high risk and small reward of reversing the pipeline, pointing to the “DilBit Disaster” — when another reversed-flow Enbridge pipeline spilled over 800,000 gallons of diluted bitumen into Michigan’s Kalamazoo River — as a warning for what could occur on the Line 9 route.
As DeSmog Canada has reported, Enbridge’s Line 9 shares the same design deficiencies as the company’s Line 6B, which burst in Michigan. Canadian environmental groups are crying foul over the agency’s non-transparent and restrictive public comment process.
“It’s pretty obvious the entire regulatory system is broken,” Adam Scott, spokesperson for Environmental Defence, told the Vancouver Observer. “They restricted the public’s ability to even participate.” Language in a 2012 budget bill allowed the NEB’s decision to be made without a comprehensive environmental assessment, and the Canadian public was forced to complete a lengthy 10-page application (and given a short two week warning to do so) to even earn the right to submit a public comment.
“There were roughly 150 folks who were actually even allowed to comment or write a letter, and this was also the first major energy project not to have to go through an environmental assessment, so it’s clear the whole system has been stacked against the public’s interest in favour of oil companies,” said Scott.
Nader Hasan of Forest Ethics agrees that the decisionmaking process was rigged.
“Our position is that the decision isn’t just wrong, it’s invalid,” said Hasan. “The rules of the game were rigged in favour of Big Oil. We believed and continue to believe this decision is fundamentally flawed because the process is fundamentally unfair.”
Forest Ethics is challenging the restrictive public comment process with a lawsuit, launched last year, which they hope will be settled in time to impact future NEB decisions.Impacts in the United States
Though Enbridge's Line 9 terminates near Montreal, the flow reversal is an integral part of the company's plans to move diluted bitumen and crude from the Bakken shale to Eastern ports for export.
As we first reported on DeSmogBlog in 2012, internal documents revealed how Enbridge was resuscitating an old industry plan, once called Trailbreaker, to link the pipeline system in the American Midwest, where tar sands crude already flows, to a coastal terminal in Portland, Maine. Enbridge's Line 9, traveling through Ontario and Quebec, is a crucial link.
In 2012, 19 advocacy groups including the Natural Resources Defense Council, Conservation Law Foundation, Greenpeace Canada, the National Wildlife Federation, and 350.org released a report, Going in Reverse: The Tar Sands Threat to Central Canada and New England, that laid out the then-secret plans to connect Enbridge's Line 9 with the Portland-Montreal Pipeline.
Who runs the Portand-Montreal Pipeline system? As the “Going in Reverse” report explains:
The Portland-Montreal Pipe Line is managed by two linked companies: the Montreal Pipe Line Limited, which owns and operates the Portland-Montreal Pipe Line with its wholly owned U.S. subsidiary, the Portland Pipeline Corporation.
The Portland-Montreal Pipe Line company, as well as Enbridge Inc., have been open about their intent to move tar sands oil east through central Canada and New England.
In 2011, Portland Pipe Line Corp. expressed publicly, “We’re still very much interested in reversing the flow of one of our two pipe lines to move western Canadian crude to the eastern seaboard,” treasurer Dave Cyr was reported saying. “We’re having discussions with Enbridge on their Line 9 and what it means to us.”
And then there's this: Montreal Pipe Line Limited is owned in large part by Imperial Oil Limited and Suncor Energy; both companies have major stakes in tar sands mining and refining operations in Alberta.
For the past two years, environmental groups and activists on this side of the border have been working to ensure that the 62-year-old Portland-Montreal Pipeline is never reversed. that travels through a number of ecologically-sensitive areas and crosses hundreds of waterways through Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine.
On Tuesday, Vermont residents of 13 towns passed resolutions during Town Meeting to prohibit the transport of tar sands crude through the pipeline.
“Vermonters have already loudly signaled opposition to transporting tar sands across our rivers and farms, alongside lakes, and through communities of the Northeast Kingdom,” said Jim Murphy, National Wildlife Federation Senior Counsel. “A spill would have a devastating impact on our water supplies, wildlife habitat and tourism industry. And any transport of tar sands through Vermont would encourage growth of an industry that contradicts all of our state’s leadership and hard work on moving toward cleaner sources of energy.”
In South Portland, Maine, which hosts the potential export terminal, residents worked to pass a "Waterfront Protection Ordinance" on the ballot last fall, but were outspent 6-to-1 by Big Oil interests.
The resistance of New Englanders might already be having an impact. While Enbridge was outspoken on a 2008 earnings call about the potential of linking its proposed tar sands pipelines to the Portland-Montreal Pipeline, this week a company spokesperson told VTDigger.org that Enbridge had "no interest" in using the Portland-Montreal Pipeline to move tar sands crude.Tags: canadanational energy boardNEBEnbridgeline 9Line 9BEnbridge Line 9KalamazooDilbit Disastertrailbreakerportland montreal pipeline